Question No. 20
Companies spend millions of dollars developing popular brand names, but it can be hard to tell why some names succeed, and others don’t. Some Canadian linguists are trying to understand this. They found that people responded well when they heard names with rhyming sounds. Comparing two imaginary brand names, “Kooparut” and “Kooparoop,” researchers discovered people liked the second name more. However, the sounds shouldn’t be too difficult: for example, “Rantherafanth” failed, but “Rantifanti” was a hit. Using the same sound again and again is part of human nature. We see this in songs, word games, and everyday spoken language worldwide.
Question No. 21
In training your dog to sit, here are four ways to make sure that it really learns. One method is to order the dog to keep sitting for short periods of time, then gradually increase the length of time. Another is to tell your dog to sit in different places so that it learns how to do it anywhere. One more way is to keep your dog close to you at first and then begin to move away from it. You can also try giving commands in a variety of tones and volumes. These tips will guarantee success.
Question No. 22
The word “pajamas” is one of many words English borrowed from other languages. It came from a Persian word, which literally meant “leg clothing.” At present, wearing pajamas is widespread in many Middle-Eastern and Asian countries. In these areas, they are not just for sleeping in, but are loose, lightweight trousers worn anywhere by both sexes. It is said that pajamas were first introduced to England in the 17th century, but soon went out of fashion. It was not until the latter half of the 19th century that they became widely popular.
Questions No. 23 to 25
Mountain pine beetles are insects native to North America. They are a threat to some types of pine trees. Usually, they attack unhealthy trees, but can also affect healthy ones. Climate change may be causing an increase in the number of these beetles, and they are beginning to have an effect on a growing number of pine species.
Forest destruction is not only an ecological problem, but it also has a serious economic effect. Although trees which remain after beetle attacks can be used, they must be cut down within 18 years, or they cannot be sold. Even if they are harvested, timber from trees that beetles have lived in breaks more easily. In addition, beetles leave blue stains on the wood. In the end, damaged logs are less attractive to buyers and their value is decreased.
One way to fight these beetles is to spray artificial scents on other trees. These smells imitate those of female pine beetles and can attract males to locations where they can be destroyed. Another way is to burn affected trees. While these methods won’t get rid of entire beetle populations, they will slow down the process of forest destruction.
【解答】 2013年度 追試験 第４問
問20 ③ 問21 ③
問23 ① 問24 ④